First Overload Interference/Desensitization to GPS Receivers, Systems, and Networks Report to FCC
The joint working group co-led by the U.S. GPS Industry Council and Lightsquared, investigating potential problems of LightSquared/GPS interference, delivered its first monthly report on March 15 as directed by the FCC. The report (PDF) lays out a schedule for receiver selection and testing and names 34 members, two working group co-chairs, and four information facilitators of a technical working group (TWG) supervising and analyzing the assessment of GNSS receivers operating under conditions of a dense national network of high-powered cell-phone transmitters. “TWG members represent a diverse group of interested parties including equipment and chipset manufacturers, aerospace/aviation companies, wireless providers, engineering firms, public safety, and various federal agencies. Additionally, several individuals have volunteered to be advisors to the TWG,” said the report.
The TWG held its first meeting on March 3 in Arlington, Virginia, and via a conference bridge for members around the globe who were unable to attend in person. In that and subsequent teleconferences, the TWG focused on the first seven items from the Work Plan:
Establish pertinent analytical and test methodologies and assumptions underlying the test regime: definition of harmful interference, relevant information regarding terrestrial broadband network, interference analysis assumptions, and evaluation of potential test methodologies.
- Select categories of receivers and receivers to be tested.
- Develop operational scenarios.
- Establish methodology for analyzing test results.
- Derive test conditions based on the established operational scenarios.
- Write test plan and procedures.
- Identify and engage appropriate test facilities.
LightSquared provided technical details to the TWG regarding the equipment planned for its terrestrial broadband deployment, including the channelization plan, output power, out-of-band emission (OOBE) characteristics, and emissions mask.
The GPS community is concerned that desensitization/overload due to strong signals outside of the GPS band may cause GPS receivers to operate in a non-linear mode with reduced gain (that is, gain compression) for the desired GPS signal. Other receiver impairments may also arise as a result of the nearby strong signals.
The TWG has agreed to move forward with a combination of laboratory-based and field-based testing programs. Field testing will be performed at outdoor test locations using transmitters, filters, and antennas similar to those that LightSquared plans to deploy in its commercial operations.
Other items of interest in the report:
Definition of Harmful interference at the GPS/GNSS/Augmentations/L-Band Receiver. “The TWG members have discussed a number of receiver parameters related to the definition of harmful interference. In the FCC Rules, harmful interference is defined as ‘interference which endangers the functioning of a radionavigation service or of other safety services or seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a radiocommunication service operating in accordance with [the ITU ] Radio Regulations.’
“Harmful interference affects different types of receivers in different ways. The key factors that pertain to the functioning of GPS receivers and/or whether service is degraded, obstructed, or interrupted are accuracy (position, velocity, time), availability (ability to perform a given function), coverage (within what space can a function be performed), integrity (what is the probability that the results are correct), and continuity (what is the probability that a given function can be completed). Metrics for harmful interference are developed from an understanding of the consequential relationship between negative impacts and receiver parameters, which include effective C/N0, PVT accuracy, time to first fix, loss of lock, cycle slips, etc. The signal conditions to be taken into account are defined in the GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) Performance Standard, 4th Edition, Interface Specifications (ISs), GPS policy, and both the present and planned future signal environments will be considered.Environmental and field conditions in which GPS receivers operate will also be considered.
“It should be possible to assess interference impact, up to that which includes harmful interference, using metrics in terms of receiver parameters that include measurable changes in effective C/N0 as well as position accuracy, time to first fix, loss of lock, cycle slips, etc. Related to this discussion is whether there is any margin that could be budgeted for terrestrial broadband operation, and if so, what that amount could be. When considering systems guaranteed for safety-of-life operations, there may be very little or no margin.
“There is general agreement within the TWG that the device testing protocols should include changes in effective C/N0 and degradation of other key performance measures so as not to exclude data that might be relevant for the post-testing analytical phase using operational scenarios.
Overload interference/desensitization at the GPS/GNSS/Augmentations/L-band Receiver. “Desensitization/overload due to strong signals outside of the GPS band may cause the GPS receiver to operate in a non-linear mode with reduced gain (i.e., gain compression) for the desired GPS signal; there may also be other receiver impairments caused by strong signals outside the GPS band. The TWG will consider these mechanisms further after testing is underway and sufficient samples are available to adequately assess such mechanisms.”
Evaluation of Potential Test Methodologies. “The TWG has agreed to move forward with a combination of laboratory-based and field-based testing programs. Laboratory tests are repeatable, allow for the creation of a fully controlled environment and the ability to test multiple scenarios and many devices in an efficient, repetitive manner. Field tests expose devices to a real-world environment where measurements can be performed at various distances and morphologies from terrestrial broadband network sites in order to gauge the effects of distance and physical environments on terrestrial broadband signal strength and potential interference. One advantage of field testing is that it captures a complete, live test environment comprehensively and helps develop keener testing or analysis insights that modeling cannot offer. The major disadvantage or concern is that field testing uses the present environment, not the environment that might exist at some future or past time. Interference testing analysis has to consider worse-case assumptions, and not only the current test reality.
“Laboratory testing will be performed either using conducted testing, where devices are connected directly to transmission sources via 50 ohm connectors, or through radiated testing in anechoic or other radiated emissions chambers. While conducted testing is the preferred laboratory methodology, anechoic chambers will be used where conducted testing is not practical, is not recommended by the manufacturer, or where connectorized devices cannot be made available within the established test timeline.
“Field testing will be performed at outdoor test locations that will utilize transmitters, filters, and antennas similar to those that will be deployed by Lig
htSquared in its commercial operations.”
The TWG identified seven categories of receivers that it considers representative of non-military GPS user equipment operating in the United States: aviation, cellular, general location/navigation, high precison, timing, space-based receivers, and networks.
Seven sub-teams are focusing on these receiver categories. The sub-teams are responsible for determining device selection and prioritization criteria, defining operational scenarios, listing testing conditions and test plan procedures, and recommending appropriate test facilities.
Save Our GPS Coalition Forms
Representatives from a variety of industries and companies have formed the Coalition to Save Our GPS to resolve what it terms a serious threat to the national positioning, navigation, and timing service: the FCC conditional waiver to Lightsquared allowing expansion of terrestrial use of the satellite spectrum immediately neighboring that of GPS, potentially causing severe interference to millions of GPS receivers.
“GPS is essential to Americans every day — it’s in our cars, the airplanes in which we fly and the ambulances, police cars, and fire trucks that help keep us safe. It’s also used in many industrial applications and even synchronizes our wireless, computer, and utility networks,” the group stated. “LightSquared’s plans to build up to 40,000 ground stations transmitting radio signals one billion times more powerful than GPS signals as received on earth could mean 40,000 ‘dead spots’ — each miles in diameter — disrupting the vitally important services GPS provides.”
The Coalition (www.SaveOurGPS.org) includes representatives from aviation, agriculture, transportation, construction, engineering, surveying, and GPS-based equipment manufacturers and service providers.
Initial members of the coalition are the Aeronautical Repair Stations Association, Air Transport Association, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, American Rental Association, Associated Equipment Distributors, Association of Equipment Manufacturers, Case New Holland, Caterpillar Inc., Edison Electric Institute, Esri, Garmin, General Aviation Manufacturers Association, Deere & Company, National Association of Manufacturers, OmniSTAR, and Trimble. More members are expected to join in the near future.
The following is from a statement issued by the coalition:
“[In] The unusual waiver granted in January to LightSquared by the FCC . . . the usual FCC process of conducting extensive testing followed by approvals was not followed. Instead, the process was approve first, then test. Additional safeguards are needed, so the coalition recommends:
“The FCC must make clear, and the NTIA must ensure, that LightSquared’s license modification is contingent on the outcome of the mandated study. The study must be comprehensive, objective, and based on correct assumptions about existing GPS uses rather than theoretical possibilities.
“The FCC should make clear that LightSquared and their investors should not proceed to make any investment in operating facilities prior to a final FCC decision (or at least make it explicit that they do so at their own risk). While this is the FCC’s established policy, it failed to make this explicit in its order.
“Further, the FCC’s, and NTIA’s, finding that ‘harmful interference concerns have been resolved’ must mean ‘resolved to the satisfaction of preexisting GPS providers and users.’ Resolution of interference has to be the obligation of LightSquared, not the extensive GPS user community of millions of citizens. LightSquared must bear the costs of preventing interference of any kind resulting from operations on LightSquared’s frequencies.
“This is a matter of critical national interest. There must be a reasonable opportunity for public comment of at least 45 days on the report produced by the working group.”
WAAS Official Again
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announced on March 18 that WAAS PRN 135 has resumed normal operations. “The WAAS team recently received the final report from Lockheed Martin on the failure of Galaxy 15,” reported FAA GNSS program manager Leo Eldredge. “After a review of that report, the team determined that the satellite was ready to be returned to operations.”
The FAA said that PRN 135 is currently located at ~120°W and enroute to its final destination of 133.1°W, but is now broadcasting operational corrections that can be used by both aviation and ground users, including those in Northwest Alaska.
In April 2010, satellite operator Intelsat reported it had lost contact with PRN 135 (named Galaxy 15) and it was drifting uncontrolled. At that time, the FAA reported that it would drift out of WAAS service within a few weeks. Instead, PRN 135 remained within a usable condition/location, although drifting east, until December 2010, when it ceased operating. On December 23, Intelsat reported that the power from the Galaxy 15 battery completely drained during its loss of Earth lock and the baseband equipment command unit reset, as it was designed to do. Shortly thereafter Galaxy 15 began accepting commands, and Intelsat engineers began receiving telemetry in the operations center.
Intelsat determined that static electricity charge caused the initial failure, and has uploaded new software to prevent the event from occurring again. There are now three operational WAAS GEO satellites:
◾ PRN 133 located at 98°W.
◾ PRN 135 located at 133.1°W (currently at ~120°W); will arrive at 133.1°W on or about April 4, 2011.
◾ PRN 138 located at 107.3°W.
EGNOS SOL Operational
The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) was declared operational for safety-of-life (SOL) services on March 2. The service consists of GPS corrected signals intended for transport applications, particularly aviation, where lives could be endangered if the performance of the navigation system is degraded.
The SOL coverage area, expected performances, and conditions of use are described in the EGNOS Safety-Of-Life Service Definition Document (SDD, see www.gpsworld.com/egnosSOL). The two operational EGNOS satellites — Inmarsat-3-F2/AOR-E at 15.5 degrees west longitude using PRN code 120, and Artemis at 21.5 degrees east longitude using PRN code 124 — now transmit Message Type 2, indicating that the signals are available for safety-critical purposes.
Air-navigation service providers can now publish SBAS precision approach procedures, localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV), based on EGNOS. On March 22, EGNOS operator European Satellite Services Provider published the first EGNOS LPV approaches for use at Pau Airport, near the Pyrénées in southern France.
EGNOS improves accuracy and provides integrity to the GPS signal over most of Europe and parts of North Africa. The system uses a monitoring network of 40 ground stations to provide the corrections with 99.9 percent availability over the core service region. Accuracy is measured by GPS user equivalent range error typically about 4.2 meters after EGNOS corrections for GPS signals from satellites at a 5-degree elevation, and 2.4 meters for satellite signals arriving from a 90-degree elevation. If reliability falls below a minimum level, EGNOS users are alerted within six seconds.
Russian SBAS Satellite Passes Transponder Tests
The Luch-5A geostationary communication satellite under construction has successfully completed a cycle of transponder tests. The satellite includes a transponder for the System for Differential Correction and Monitoring (SDCM), the Russian satellite-based augmentation system. SDCM will provide integrity monitoring of
GPS and GLONASS satellites and differential corrections and analyses of GLONASS performance: real-time differential corrections with horizontal accuracy of 1–1.5 meters, vertical of 2–3 meters.