Innovation: GNSS Antennas and Humans

February 1, 2012  - By 0 Comments
INNOVATION INSIGHTS with Richard Langley

INNOVATION INSIGHTS with Richard Langley

A Study of Their Interactions

By Jared B. Bancroft, Valérie Renaudin, Aiden Morrison, and Gérard Lachapelle

GPS IS VIRTUALLY UBIQUITOUS with more than 400 million units estimated to be in use in the United States alone. Some of these units are standalone devices such as those used in surveying and timing applications and those used for vehicle navigation or tracking with permanent or temporary mountings. However, the majority of the units are integrated into cellular telephones, tablet computers, personal digital assistants, watches, cameras, and other devices, which are designed to be operated in close contact with the human body. We even now have GPS shoes!

It is well known that the performance of the antenna of a radio receiver can be affected when it is used in close proximity to the human body. We only have to touch the whip antenna of a portable AM/FM or scanner radio to convince ourselves of the effect. So, when we use a handheld GPS receiver or wear a GPS watch, or put a GPS-equipped cellular telephone up to our ear, are there any effects on the operation of the receiver?

It turns out that there are four major effects that can change the performance of a GPS (or other GNSS) receiver antenna when placed near or on the human body. The impedance of the antenna may be changed causing a drop in power transfer to the receiver front end. The center frequency and bandwidth of the antenna may be changed again resulting in a loss of received power. The gain pattern of the antenna may be changed. However, the change may be favorable, improving reception for a given satellite azimuth and elevation angle. And lastly, there will be close-range multipath between the antenna and the body skin.

All of these factors need to be taken into consideration when a manufacturer is designing a GPS unit to be operated in close proximity to a human body. Trade-offs might be possible and certain designs may make the antenna less likely to interact with its surroundings.

But how does one go about assessing the antenna’s performance in a repeatable and quantifiable way?

In this month’s column, a team of researchers from The University of Calgary report on tests conducted on two different types of GPS antennas operated in the vicinity of a human phantom — an artificial body with similar electromagnetic properties as that of a real human.


“Innovation” features discussions about advances in GPS technology, its applications, and the fundamentals of GPS positioning. The column is coordinated by Richard Langley, Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick. To contact him with topic ideas, email him at lang @ unb.ca.


GNSS-based navigation is the foundation of many pedestrian navigation systems. The use and benefit of GNSS receivers to locate people has increased dramatically over the past few years. Pedestrian navigation applications include mobile phone users, first responders, health and activity monitoring, consensual tracking (such as offender management), recreational use, and tracking of military personnel. GNSS navigation systems are commonly available in watches and personal entertainment devices. Some applications contain GNSS receivers and antennas in shoes, glasses, and jackets. Since each application using a GNSS receiver to locate people requires an antenna, the optimal type, size, and location on the body is becoming increasingly important.

This article addresses adverse antenna effects when the antenna is placed near or on the human body, specifically in the reactive near field at the GPS L1 frequency. Using real data collected on a human phantom over prolonged periods, the changes within the antenna are observed as a function of distance from the body. Thus, a performance profile can be generated to quantify the power loss incurred by loading the antenna. The study applies equally well to all GNSS operating at or near the GPS L1 frequency.

The researchers have theoretically addressed performance of GPS antennas in close proximity to a human body. Using simulations to provide analysis of antenna detuning effects, one research group showed a 24.4-MHz shift in the resonance frequency of the antenna when placed 10–40 millimeters from a simulated human chest. The resonance shift was common at all distances, although the return loss decreased as the antenna was moved further away from the chest.

A few studies have developed antennas to be located in protective (or otherwise) garments for specific applications. Our team previously analyzed the impact of antenna location on the human body by comparing the solution of eight identical and simultaneous navigation solutions.

Antenna-Body Interaction

Antenna detuning refers to the consequence of the electrical interaction between an antenna and an adjacent object, the body of a user in this context, which causes the center frequency of the antenna to deviate from the desired center frequency. More generally, there are several effects that serve to degrade antenna performance that arise when an antenna operates near the body of a user.

The first of these effects is a change in the impedance of the antenna, as shown in FIGURE 1. (See online sidebar for antenna and electromagnetic radiation term definitions.) The change results in the impedance of the antenna no longer properly matching that of the network that it is expected to drive, therefore causing incomplete power transfer between the antenna element and the subsequent radio-frequency (RF) stages.


Selected Antenna and Electromagnetic Radiation Terms

Axial ratio. A measure of the polarization ellipticity of an antenna designed to receive circularly polarized signals. An axial ratio of unity, or 0 dB, implies a perfectly circularly polarized antenna.

Bandwidth. The range of frequencies over which an antenna is designed to operate efficiently. The bandwidth limits are typically determined by a particular reduction in gain compared to that at the antenna’s center frequency; for example, 3 dB or 10 dB.

Conductivity. A measure of a material’s ability to conduct an electric current. The reciprocal of resistivity. Units are mhos per meter.

Dielectric. A material in which there are no free charges that can move through it under the influence of an electric field. An insulator. However, minute displacements of positive and negative charges in opposite directions are possible. A dielectric in which this charge displacement has taken place is said to be polarized.

Far field. The area sufficiently far from an antenna where the gain pattern is essentially independent of distance. In the far field, the power of an electromagnetic wave traveling in free space drops off as the square of the distance from the transmitting antenna.

Fresnel reflection coefficient. A measure of the degree of reflection of an electromagnetic wave at the interface between two media. Dependent on the properties of the media, the polarization of the wave, and the angle of incidence.

Gain. For a transmitting antenna, the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction to the radiation that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna was radiated isotropically. For a receiving antenna, it is the ratio of the power delivered by the antenna in response to a signal arriving from a given direction compared to that delivered by a hypothetical isotropic reference antenna.

Gain (amplitude) pattern. The spatial variation of an antenna’s gain.

Human phantoms. Models of parts of the human body used in engineering, science, and medical studies designed to mimic a particular physical, chemical, or electrical behavior.

Impedance. The complex ratio of the voltage to the current in an alternating current circuit. Sometimes called complex resistance in which case the absolute value of the complex resistance is called the impedance. Units are ohms.

Lossy material. A material in which a significant amount of the energy of a propagating electromagnetic wave is absorbed (dissipated) per unit distance traveled by the wave.

Near field. The region around an antenna within a few wavelengths where there are strong inductive and capacitive effects from the currents and charges in an antenna that cause electromagnetic components not to behave like far-field radiation. Within the radiating part of the near field, the gain pattern is dependent on the distance from the antenna.

Polarization. The sense of vibration of electromagnetic radiation. There are two main types of polarization: linear, in which the radiating wave’s electric field vector is confined to a particular direction (typically vertical or horizontal); and circular, where the electric field vector rotates as the wave propagates through space. Depending on the sense of rotation, a signal’s waves may be left-hand or, as with GPS signals, right-hand circularly polarized. For maximum response, the polarization of a receiving antenna should match the polarization of the signals.

(Absolute) Permittivity. A measure of how an electric field affects, and is affected by, a dielectric material. In a sense, it describes a material’s ability to transmit (or “permit”) an electric field. Since the response of most materials to external fields generally depends on the frequency of the field, permittivity is expressed as a complex quantity with real and imaginary components as a function of frequency. Units are farads per meter.

Relative permittivity. The ratio of the permittivity of a material to that of free space or a vacuum. Also called the dielectric constant. Unitless.

Return loss. A measure of the effectiveness of power delivery from a transmission line to a load such as an antenna or vice versa. If the power incident on an antenna is Pin and the power reflected back to the source is Pref, the degree of mismatch between the incident and reflected power in the traveling waves is given by the ratio  Pin/Pref.  Units are dB. Functionally related to the Fresnel reflection coefficients and VSWR.

Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). A measure of the size of the reflected waves in a transmission line due to impedance mismatches between the line and a connected antenna. The ratio of the maximum voltage along the line to the minimum voltage along the line. Ideally, an antenna should have a VSWR value of unity.


 FIGURE 1. Change in the reactive portion of the impedance of a patch antenna versus separation distance between the antenna element and imitation human skin (Courtesy, Buckley et al., 2010; see Further Reading).

FIGURE 1. Change in the reactive portion of the impedance of a patch antenna versus separation distance between the antenna element and imitation human skin (Courtesy, Buckley et al., 2010; see Further Reading).

The figure provides an example of the impedance for a patch antenna plotted against the separation distance of a simulated human wrist. When mounted directly on the user’s skin surface, this specific antenna gains significant reactive impedance that results in a large voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) with the network.

A second effect of antenna proximity to human skin is the alteration of the center frequency, as well as the alteration of the antenna bandwidth. Depending on the bandwidth of the signal of interest, the bandwidth of the antenna element, and the degree of center-frequency shifting and bandwidth loss experienced, these factors can contribute to significant loss of received power.

Thirdly, it is important to note that in some configurations, a “lossy” medium adjacent to an antenna may improve the apparent performance of the antenna due to changes in its gain pattern that result in better receive or transmit performance for a given azimuth and elevation angle.

For any application in which the antenna may be either in free space or directly adjacent to a lossy medium such as a human body, the use of balanced antennas is recommended. The image current of a balanced antenna is contained within complementary structures of the antenna itself, not within the casing or adjacent material of the antenna, therefore making the antenna much less likely to interact with surrounding media.

Fourth, the close proximity of a reflective material increases close-range multipath. If the distance between the reflector (that is, skin) and the antenna is close to half a wavelength, giving a 180º phase shift of the carrier, deconstructive interference can occur. There are several factors that contribute to this including the back lobe of the antenna gain pattern, reflection coefficient of the skin beneath the antenna, and the incident angle of the incoming ray. Approximation via simple ray tracing becomes dauntingly complex due to the variation of the antenna properties listed above, resulting from detuning. Therefore, observation of the effect becomes easier than modeling an incoming ray and its multipath counterparts.

Phantom Body Simulation

To conduct an assessment of the impact of the human body on the radiation patterns of diverse antennas in the context of tracking GNSS signals, a human body phantom has been designed for collecting the experimental data. Variations of the locations and orientations of the antenna rigidly mounted on a human shoulder, head, or any other locations would render the repeatability and comparison of the collected data hardly feasible. Furthermore, the distance that separates the antenna from the human body surface could only be precisely controlled using an artificial modeling of the human body. Therefore, a human body phantom is required for productive analysis.

Because the human body is mainly composed of water, the presence of human tissue in the vicinity of the antenna introduces an absorption and reflective effect that alters the performance of the antenna. Different mathematical models have been developed for representing the different component combinations of a human body. Based on the study of numerous women and men of different ages and sizes, a classic model predicting the fat-free mass of a person has been developed and assumes that 73 percent of a human body consists of water. Looking at the elemental composition in the human body, it can be found that a concentration of 7 grams of salt per liter of water provides an acceptable modeling of the human tissues. Complex shapes of the human body are used for modeling more precisely the layered structure of the human tissues using either a more realistic human phantom or a more detailed model comprising the extensive data on the dielectric properties of each layer constituting the human tissues of interest. For context of this study, the phantom was kept simple and was made of a large plastic container filled with a 7 percent concentration of a saline solution.

The radiative transfer of the human body phantom on the reception of GNSS signals can be evaluated through the understanding of the dielectric permittivity of the solution. Different models, including the Wagner, Debye, Cole & Cole, or Fricke, are commonly used for studying the dielectric behavior of biological tissues. The Debye model gives the permittivity of an aqueous saline solution of salinity, S, at a fixed temperature, t, as

Inn-Eq1 (1)

where

Screen shot 2013-01-04 at 10.01.10 PM is the angular frequency (Hz),

εi equals 8.8419 ×10-12 (farads per meter),

τ is the relaxation time (seconds),

σ is the ionic conductivity of the dissolved salts (mhos per meter), and

ε0 and ε∞ are the static and high frequency dielectric constants.

Equation (1) gives the dielectric proprieties of the human phantom solution for a specific temperature, saline concentration, and temperature. The experiments we conducted and report on in this article lasted several days and were conducted outside, which unfortunately resulted in temperature fluctuations. Consequently, the 7 percent saline solution over the temperature range of 11º to 31º C for L1 (1575.42 MHz) results in a 9 percent variation of permittivity. As shown in FIGURE 2, the dielectric constant over the experimental temperature range is in the interval [74.6, 81.9]. Because the variation is small, the permittivity value can be closely approximated to a mean value of 78.

 FIGURE 2. Real part of the permittivity of the human body phantom as a function of temperature for the GPS L1 frequency.

FIGURE 2. Real part of the permittivity of the human body phantom as a function of temperature for the GPS L1 frequency.

Reflection Coefficient of the Phantom Body

The Fresnel reflection coefficients for a smooth flat surface depend on frequency, the incident angle, polarization, and ground characteristics. Since the container is full of salted water it can also be considered a reflective surface.

The relative permittivity of the saline solution given in Equation (1) can be reformatted as

Inn-Eq2 (2)

The reflection coefficients with vertical and horizontal polarizations, respectively, of the electromagnetic wave on the surface of the saline water are given by the following Fresnel equations:

Inn-Eq3(3)

Inn-Eq4(4)

where Rv and Rh are the vertical and horizontal polarized reflection coefficients, respectively, and θ is the incident angle.

Assuming that the water surface is flat and infinite, Equations (3) and (4) are plotted against the incident angle in FIGURE 3. The reflection coefficients were estimated using a mean temperature of 21°C, a salt concentration of 7 percent and at the L1 frequency.

 FIGURE 3. Fresnel coefficient for L1 considering a flat surface of salted water.

FIGURE 3. Fresnel coefficient for L1 considering a flat surface of salted water.

While the saline solution of the human phantom has an angle of incidence and direction of polarization dependent on reflectivity, the fact that the GPS carrier is circularly polarized must be considered. Due to the circular polarization of the carrier and that of most antenna elements intended for GPS use, the received signal strength of the reflected wave will always appear to be equal to or higher than that of the reflected portion of the horizontal polarization.

Test Setup

To evaluate the change in gain pattern as function of distance from the phantom, we collected 24-hour data segments. These segments allowed the receiver to observe all satellites. A high-performance GPS L1 receiver module evaluation kit was used with two antennas. The first was a patch antenna while the second was a quadrifilar helix antenna. FIGURE 4 shows both antennas without their coverings. Each antenna has a built-in low noise amplifier (LNA). The antenna specifications are listed in TABLE 1.

 FIGURE 4. Patch (above) and quadrifilar (below) antennas used in the tests.

FIGURE 4. Patch (above) and quadrifilar (below) antennas used in the tests.

 TABLE 1. Antenna specifications.

TABLE 1. Antenna specifications.

A water container holding the saline solution was placed on the roof of a building as shown in FIGURE 5. The container had a slight inclination to move a small air pocket to the corner of the container away from the antenna. After a successful 24-hour data collection period, the antenna was supported by a small plastic box and oriented in the same direction. Six vertical distances were selected, namely 0, 11, 22, 30, 41, and 52 millimeters.

 FIGURE 5. Data collection with patch antenna fixed to phantom body.

FIGURE 5. Data collection with patch antenna fixed to phantom body.

The gain pattern as measured by the C/N0 values of the path antenna is shown in FIGURE 6. In general, the largest effect is seen near the zenith where the power decreased by 10–15 dB when the antenna was 22 millimeters from the phantom body. It is also observed that the effect is maximized at 22 millimeters, and then reverts back to near normal operation at 52 millimeters. Additionally, at lower elevation angles (< 30º), the gain behaves more linearly, where the largest distance has the least gain, while the smallest distance has the most gain. The effect of the phantom body appears to flatten the gain pattern.

The pattern shown in Figure 6 shows the effect of the proximity to the phantom body over all elevation angles. However, a prominent pattern emerges for measurements made at elevation angles of 45º and 85º. In the case of a 22-millimeter antenna distance from the body, a significant power decrease occurs. For satellites with an 85º elevation angle, nearly 8 dB is lost compared to 5 dB loss at a 45º elevation angle.

 FIGURE 6. Gain pattern of the patch antenna as measured by the measured C/N0 at all elevation angles as a function of antenna distance from body. Elevation angles [0º, 90º] have azimuths [180º, 360º], while elevation angles [90º, 180º] have azimuths [0º, 180º].

FIGURE 6. Gain pattern of the patch antenna as measured by the measured C/N0 at all elevation angles as a function of antenna distance from body. Elevation angles [0º, 90º] have azimuths [180º, 360º], while elevation angles [90º, 180º] have azimuths [0º, 180º].

FIGURE 7 provides the trend as a function of distance from the body. The trend of the power loss at 22 millimeters is common on all measurements, albeit more significant for higher-elevation-angle satellites. For satellite measurements made at an 85º elevation angle, the power varies by 12 dB. When all measurements are considered, which includes more frequent lower-elevation-angle satellite measurements and the fact that the gain pattern deviates significantly at higher elevation angles (as shown in Figure 6), the fluctuation is less prominent.

 FIGURE 7. Mean C/N0 measurements of the patch antenna from all measurements and those only at 45º and 85º elevation angles as a function of antenna distance from the body.

FIGURE 7. Mean C/N0 measurements of the patch antenna from all measurements and those only at 45º and 85º elevation angles as a function of antenna distance from the body.

To assess the cause of the impact, we removed the phantom and replaced it with a flat aluminum reflector placed beneath the antenna. The antenna was then placed at the same distances above the reflector as previously. Since the gain pattern had been established and this test was to observe the effect of the reflector, only 60 seconds of data was collected at each distance.

FIGURE 8 provides the change in C/N0 for two tests, which has a comparable trend to that of Figure 7. From the corroboration of the two tests, it appears that the salt water provides similar multipath effects to that of the aluminum sheet. The power loss is then attributed to destructive interference.

 FIGURE 8. Mean C/N0 measurements (over 60 seconds) of satellite PRN 8 with 85º elevation angle when placed above an aluminum reflector.

FIGURE 8. Mean C/N0 measurements (over 60 seconds) of satellite PRN 8 with 85º elevation angle when placed above an aluminum reflector.

Similar data collections were conducted with the quadrifilar helix in order to assess its ability to perform close to the human phantom. The quadrifilar antenna has the LNA circuitry vertically below the antenna and therefore was placed horizontally on the water container. FIGURE 9 shows its gain pattern. The overall C/N0 is lower but is subject to less variation compared to that of the patch antenna. In general, we noticed lower C/N0 values with the quadrifilar antenna, regardless of the environment and despite the LNA having 5 dB more amplification. Some moderate variations of up to 10 dB appear on the east side of the antenna (zenith angle [0º, 90º]), but overall the pattern appears to be more regular.

 FIGURE 9. Gain pattern of the quadrifilar antenna as measured by the C/N0 of all measurements as a function of antenna distance from body. Elevation angles [0º, 90º] have azimuths [180º, 360º], while elevation angles [90º, 180º] have azimuths [0º, 180º].

FIGURE 9. Gain pattern of the quadrifilar antenna as measured by the C/N0 of all measurements as a function of antenna distance from body. Elevation angles [0º, 90º] have azimuths [180º, 360º], while elevation angles [90º, 180º] have azimuths [0º, 180º].

The overall power variation was assessed in a similar method. FIGURE 10 shows cubic-like functions with 3-dB variations. There is also no consistent downward power loss trend at 22 millimeters as observed with the patch antenna. As expected, due to the balanced nature of the quadrifilar antenna, the degree of apparent power loss caused by adjacent material is substantially lower compared to the patch antenna. While the peak level of power received is not as high as that experienced with the patch antenna, the consistency of the received power level is better.

 FIGURE 10. Mean C/N0 measurements of the quadrifilar antenna from all measurements and those only at 45º and 85º elevation angles as a function of antenna distance from the body.

FIGURE 10. Mean C/N0 measurements of the quadrifilar antenna from all measurements and those only at 45º and 85º elevation angles as a function of antenna distance from the body.

Conclusions

We have investigated the impact of the proximity of the human body on received signal power associated with operation of L1 GPS antennas through experimental tests. GPS signals have been collected using two different antenna types (a patch antenna and a quadrifilar helix antenna), placed on a human body phantom with different separation distances. A strong relationship between these distances and the averaged received signal power has been observed for both antennas with overall lower C/N0 values for the quadrifilar antenna. The largest attenuation is not observed when the antenna is directly adjacent to the user body but when it is about 22 millimeters above it. We found that the attenuation mainly results from destructive interference due to multipath. These results suggest that body-mounted GPS antennas should be directly in contact with the user’s body for achieving better tracking performance. Our future research will include theoretically assessing the experimental results for better understanding of the underlying effects.

Acknowledgments

This article is based on the paper “GNSS Antenna-Human Body Interaction” presented at ION GNSS 2011, the 24th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation, Portland, Oregon, September 19–23, 2011. The authors would like to thank Prof. Ron Johnston, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Calgary, for his insight and consultation in preparing that paper. We thank John Buckley, Tyndall National Institute, Ireland, and his co-authors for permission to use Figure 1, a version of which appears in “The Detuning Effects of a Wrist-Worn Antenna and Design of a Custom Antenna Measurement System” (see Further Reading).

Manufacturers

The tests discussed in this article used a u-blox AG EVK-6T evaluation kit using a LEA-6T L1 GPS module, an Allis Communication Co. Ltd. M827B active L1 patch antenna, and a Sarantel Ltd. SL1206 active L1 quadrifilar helix antenna.


Jared B. Bancroft is a senior research engineer in the Position, Location And Navigation (PLAN) Group in the Department of Geomatics Engineering at The University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. He received his Ph.D. in geomatics engineering in 2010 and has worked in the area of navigation since 2004. Dr. Bancroft’s research interests include pedestrian and vehicular navigation through data fusion of sensors and satellite navigation data.

Valérie Renaudin is a senior research associate in the PLAN Group. She received an M.S. in geomatics engineering from the Ecole Supérieure des Géomètres et Topographes, France, in 1999 and a doctorate in geomatics engineering from the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, in 2009. She was previously the technical director at Swissat AG. Her research interests include low-cost sensors, hybridization techniques, magnetometers, and indoor navigation.

Aiden Morrison is a senior research associate in the PLAN Group. He received his B.Eng. in electrical engineering from Ryerson University, Canada, in 2006 and a Ph.D. in geomatics engineering from The University of Calgary in 2010. His research interests include development of integrated navigation systems.

Gérard Lachapelle holds a Canada Research Chair in Wireless Location in the Department of Geomatics Engineering at The University of Calgary, where he has been a professor since 1988 and heads the PLAN Group. He has been involved in a multitude of GNSS R&D projects since 1980, ranging from RTK positioning to indoor location and GNSS signal processing enhancements.


Further Reading

• Previous Work by Authors
“GPS Observability and Availability for Various Antenna Locations on the Human Body” by J.B. Bancroft, G. Lachapelle, T. Williams, and J. Garrett in Proceedings of ION GNSS 2010, the 23rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation, Portland, Oregon, September 21–24, 2010, pp. 2941–2951.

• GNSS Antennas
Mobile-Phone GPS Antennas: Can They be Better?” by T. Haddrell, M. Phocas, and N. Ricquier in GPS World, Vol. 21, No. 2, February 2010, pp. 29–35.

GNSS Antennas: An Introduction to Bandwidth, Gain Pattern, Polarization, and All That” by G.J.K. Moernaut and D. Orban in GPS World, Vol. 20, No. 2, February 2009, pp. 42–48.

A Primer on GPS Antennas” by R.B. Langley in GPS World, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 1998, pp. 73–77.

• Interaction between Receiving Antennas and Human Body Parts
“The Detuning Effects of a Wrist-Worn Antenna and Design of a Custom Antenna Measurement System” by J. Buckley, K.G. McCarthy, B. O’Flynn, and C. O’Mathuna in Proceedings of the 40th European Microwave Conference, Paris, France, 28–30 September 2010, pp. 1738-1741.

“One-Layer GPS Antennas Perform Well Near a Human Body” by T. Kellomaki, J. Heikkinen, and M. Kivikoski in Proceedings of EuCAP 2007, the Second European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 11–16, 2007, 6 pp.

“Effects of Human Body Interference on the Performance of a GPS Antenna” by M. Ur Rehman, Y. Gao, X. Chen, C.G. Parini, and Z. Ying in Proceedings of EuCAP 2007, the Second European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 11–16, 2007, 4 pp.

• Wearable Antennas
“Design of a Protective Garment GPS Antenna” by L. Vallozzi, W. Vadendriessche, H. Rogier, C. Hertleer, and M.L. Scarpello in Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 51, No. 6, June 2009, pp. 1504–1508, doi: 10.1002/mop.24372.

“Wearable Antennas in the Vicinity of Human Body” by P. Salonen, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and M. Kivikoski in Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Monterey, California, June 20–26, 2004, pp. 467–470, doi: 10.1109/APS.2004.1329675.

“A Small Planar Inverted-F Antenna for Wearable Applications” by P. Salonen, L. Sydänheimo, M. Keskilammi, and M. Kivikoski in Digest of Papers, the Third International Symposium on Wearable Computers, San Francisco, California, October 18–19, 1999, pp. 95–100, doi: 10.1109/ISWC.1999.806679.

• Dielectric Properties of Human Tissue and Sea Water
“New Permittivity Measurements of Seawater” by W. Ellison, A. Balana, G. Delbos, K. Lamkaouchi, L. Ey, C. Guillou, and C. Prigent in Radio Science, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1998, pp. 639–648, doi: 10.1029/97RS02223.

Compilation of the Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues at RF and Microwave Frequencies by C. Gabriel, Final Technical Report, AL/OE-TR-1996-0004, Radio Frequency Radiation Division, Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, January 1996.

“Studies on Body Composition. III. The Body Water and Chemically Combined Nitrogen Content in Relation to Fat Content” by N. Pacen and E.N. Rathurn in Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 158, 1945, pp. 685–691.

• Human Phantoms
“Solid Phantoms for Evaluation of Interactions Between the Human Body and Antennas” by K. Ito and H. Kawai in Proceedings of IWAT 2005, the 2005 IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials, Singapore, March 7–9, 2005, pp. 41–44, doi: 10.1109/IWAT.2005.1460993.

“A High-Precision Real Human Phantom for EM Evaluation of Handheld Terminals in a Talk Situation” by K. Ogawa, T. Matsuyoshi, H. Iwai, and N. Hatakenaka in 2001 Digest, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Boston, Massachusetts, July 8–13, 2001, Vol. 2, pp. 68–71, doi: 10.1109/APS.2001.959623.

This article is tagged with , and posted in From the Magazine, GNSS, Innovation, OEM
Richard B. Langley

About the Author:

Richard B. Langley is a professor in the Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) in Fredericton, Canada, where he has been teaching and conducting research since 1981. He has a B.Sc. in applied physics from the University of Waterloo and a Ph.D. in experimental space science from York University, Toronto. He spent two years at MIT as a postdoctoral fellow, researching geodetic applications of lunar laser ranging and VLBI. For work in VLBI, he shared two NASA Group Achievement Awards. Professor Langley has worked extensively with the Global Positioning System. He has been active in the development of GPS error models since the early 1980s and is a co-author of the venerable “Guide to GPS Positioning” and a columnist and contributing editor of GPS World magazine. His research team is currently working on a number of GPS-related projects, including the study of atmospheric effects on wide-area augmentation systems, the adaptation of techniques for spaceborne GPS, and the development of GPS-based systems for machine control and deformation monitoring. Professor Langley is a collaborator in UNB’s Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network project and is the principal investigator for the GPS instrument on the Canadian CASSIOPE research satellite now in orbit. Professor Langley is a fellow of The Institute of Navigation (ION), the Royal Institute of Navigation, and the International Association of Geodesy. He shared the ION 2003 Burka Award with Don Kim and received the ION’s Johannes Kepler Award in 2007.

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